Improvements

The formula used to calculate improvements is:

[Perk Value] = [Perk Max] * (1 - exp(-[Amount Invested] / ([Coefficient] * [Land] + 15000)))

The stated maximum below can be exceeded with improvement bonuses such as

Improvement Perks
Adaptation
Marshling only
Perk Max Coefficient
Own Casualties -50% 6,000
Land Discovered -25% 4,000
Affinity
Sylvan only
Perk Max Coefficient
Mana Production +60% 4,000
Aggression
Marshling only
Perk Max Coefficient
Offensive Power +40% 6,000
XP Generation -25% 6,000
Apprenticeship
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Unit Gold Costs -50% 7,500
Unit Lumber Costs -50% 9,100
Armoury
Artillery only
Perk Max Coefficient
Unit Limit Pairing +50% 12,000
Awareness
Sylvan only
Perk Max Coefficient
Spy Strength +60% 6,000
XP Generation +40% 6,000
XP Gained +60% 4,000
Bashing
Troll only
Perk Max Coefficient
Defensive Power +50% 8,000
Bloom
Sylvan only
Perk Max Coefficient
Food Production +40% 6,000
Sapling Growth +75% 7,000
Brutality
Beastfolk only
Perk Max Coefficient
Offensive Power +50% 15,000
Own Casualties +50% 10,000
Enemy Casualties +50% 10,000
Building
Troll only
Perk Max Coefficient
Construction Costs -50% 4,500
Rezoning Costs -50% 4,500
Burrowing
Swarm only
Perk Max Coefficient
Population +30% 6,000
Population Growth +40% 6,000
Camouflage
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Defensive Power +40% 9,000
Own Defensive Casualties -30% 8,000
Cartography
All except Barbarian, Beastfolk, Growth, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Myconid, Sylvan, Swarm, Troll, Void, Wood Elf
Perk Max Coefficient
Exploration Gold Costs -35% 4,000
Land Discovered +35% 4,000
Cartography
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Land Discovered +70% 7,000
Exploration Gold Costs -35% 7,000
Cartography
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Exploration Gold Costs -50% 6,000
Land Discovered +50% 6,000
City Guard
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Defensive Power +50% 10,000
Coils
Void only
Perk Max Coefficient
Offensive Power +40% 10,000
Own Offensive Casualties -80% 12,000
Combat
All except Barbarian, Beastfolk, Growth, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Sylvan, Swarm, Troll, Void, Wood Elf
Perk Max Coefficient
Own Defensive Casualties -20% 5,000
Own Offensive Casualties -20% 6,000
Combat
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Own Defensive Casualties -30% 5,500
Own Offensive Casualties -30% 5,500
Commerce
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Gold Production +40% 9,000
Commerce
All except Barbarian, Beastfolk, Growth, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Myconid, Sylvan, Swarm, Troll, Void, Wood Elf, Yeti
Perk Max Coefficient
Gold Production +25% 4,000
Compassion
Beastfolk only
Perk Max Coefficient
Defensive Power +50% 15,000
Own Casualties -50% 10,000
Enemy Casualties -50% 10,000
Cones
Void only
Perk Max Coefficient
Mana Production +80% 6,000
Construction
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Construction Costs -50% 7,000
Rezoning Costs -50% 7,000
Construction
All except Barbarian, Artillery, Beastfolk, Dragon, Growth, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Sylvan, Swarm, Qur, Troll, Void, Wood Elf
Perk Max Coefficient
Construction Costs -25% 4,000
Rezoning Costs -25% 4,000
Construction
Qur only
Perk Max Coefficient
Construction Costs -25% 4,000
Rezoning Costs -25% 4,000
Unit Limit Pairing +90% 5,000
Construction
Dragon only
Perk Max Coefficient
Construction Costs -25% 4,000
Rezoning Costs -25% 4,000
Unit Limit Pairing +25% 4,000
Construction
Artillery only
Perk Max Coefficient
Construction Costs -25% 4,000
Rezoning Costs -25% 4,000
Unit Limit Pairing +25% 4,000
Defense
All except Barbarian, Beastfolk, Growth, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Sylvan, Swarm, Troll, Void, Wood Elf
Perk Max Coefficient
Defensive Power +25% 7,500
Depth
Marshling only
Perk Max Coefficient
Population +80% 10,000
Rezoning Costs -25% 4,000
Digging
Swarm only
Perk Max Coefficient
Gold Production +50% 9,000
Gem Production +15% 9,000
Education
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Improvement Points Value From Investments +25% 3,000
Espionage
All except Barbarian, Beastfolk, Growth, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Sylvan, Swarm, Troll, Void, Wood Elf
Perk Max Coefficient
Spy Strength +45% 5,000
Spy Losses -45% 5,000
Spy Units Housing +45% 5,000
Espionage
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Spy Strength +90% 8,500
Spy Losses -90% 8,500
Spy Units Housing +90% 8,500
Espionage
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Spy Strength +60% 6,500
Spy Losses -60% 6,500
Spy Units Housing +60% 6,500
Farming
All except Barbarian, Armada, Beastfolk, Growth, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Sylvan, Swarm, Troll, Void, Wood Elf
Perk Max Coefficient
Food Production +45% 5,000
Farming
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Food Production +60% 6,500
Fencing
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Offensive Power +40% 9,000
Own Offensive Casualties -40% 8,000
Foraging
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Food Production +90% 8,000
Forestry
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Population Growth +35% 7,500
Lumber Production +50% 7,000
Foundations
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Construction Time -80% 8,000
Construction Costs -35% 5,500
Friskiness
Marshling only
Perk Max Coefficient
Marshling Spawning +40% 6,000
Food Production -30% 6,000
Glimmering
Troll only
Perk Max Coefficient
Gold Production +50% 6,500
Goo Puddles
Marshling only
Perk Max Coefficient
Defensive Power +30% 4,000
Construction Costs +30% 4,000
Gryphonry
Snow Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Unit Limit Pairing +100% 10,000
Halo
Void only
Perk Max Coefficient
Defensive Power +25% 6,000
Own Defensive Casualties -50% 8,000
Harbour
Armada only
Perk Max Coefficient
Unit Limit Pairing +45% 5,000
Food Production +45% 5,000
Haze
Void only
Perk Max Coefficient
Unit Mana Costs -20% 6,000
Hollowing
Dwarg only
Perk Max Coefficient
Population +40% 8,000
Thunderstone Discovery +20% 8,000
Housing
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Population +40% 8,000
Housing
All except Barbarian, Beastfolk, Dwarg, Growth, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Sacred Order, Sylvan, Swarm, Troll, Void, Wood Elf
Perk Max Coefficient
Population +20% 4,000
Housing
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Population +30% 6,000
Hunting
Troll only
Perk Max Coefficient
Food Production +90% 5,500
Husbandry
Human, Nomad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Horse Taming +45% 5,000
Leadership
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Ruler Title Bonus +50% 500
Leadership
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Ruler Title Bonus +80% 2,000
Logging
All except Aurei, Barbarian, Beastfolk, Dwarg, Growth, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Glimjir, Myconid, Sylvan, Swarm, Troll, Void, Wood Elf
Perk Max Coefficient
Lumber Production +25% 4,000
Logging
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Lumber Production +35% 5,500
Market
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Exchange Rate +30% 6,000
Gold Production +50% 7,500
Mobilisation
All except Aurei, Barbarian, Beastfolk, Growth, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Myconid, Sylvan, Swarm, Troll, Yeti, Void, Wood Elf
Perk Max Coefficient
Unit Gold Costs -25% 4,000
Unit Ore Costs -25% 4,000
Mustering
Yeti only
Perk Max Coefficient
Unit Lumber Costs -15% 6,000
Unit Ore Costs -25% 4,000
Food Consumption +10% 6,000
Muttering
Troll only
Perk Max Coefficient
Wizard Strength +50% 5,500
Spell Damage -50% 5,500
Mana Production +50% 5,500
Wizard Units Housing +50% 5,500
Mysticism
Marshling only
Perk Max Coefficient
Mana Production +100% 6,000
Own Casualties +40% 8,000
Spell Damage -35% 4,000
Nesting
Troll only
Perk Max Coefficient
Population +40% 4,500
Nurture
Sylvan only
Perk Max Coefficient
Rezoning Costs -40% 6,000
Land Discovered +20% 4,000
Offense
All except Barbarian, Beastfolk, Growth, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Myconid, Sylvan, Swarm, Troll, Void, Wood Elf
Perk Max Coefficient
Offensive Power +25% 7,500
Peacefulness
Marshling only
Perk Max Coefficient
Own Casualties -40% 5,000
Enemy Casualties -50% 7,500
Perception
Swarm only
Perk Max Coefficient
Defensive Power +50% 9,000
XP Generation +100% 9,000
XP Gained +100% 9,000
Prism
Void only
Perk Max Coefficient
Population +100% 22,200
Population Growth +10,000% 10,000
Rage
Sylvan only
Perk Max Coefficient
Offensive Power +40% 8,000
Defensive Modifiers For Target -15% 6,000
Readiness
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Unit Gold Costs -35% 5,500
Unit Ore Costs -35% 5,500
Unit Training Time -80% 12,500
Refining
Imperial Gnome only
Perk Max Coefficient
Resource Conversion (passive And Automatic Conversion, Not Exchanged Resources) +50% 6,000
Research
All except Barbarian, Beastfolk, Growth, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Sylvan, Swarm, Troll, Void, Wood Elf
Perk Max Coefficient
XP Generation +25% 5,000
XP Gained +25% 5,000
Roaming
Sylvan only
Perk Max Coefficient
Population +20% 4,000
Rock Throwing
Troll only
Perk Max Coefficient
Ore Production +50% 4,500
Sacred Duty
Sacred Order only
Perk Max Coefficient
Unit Specific Housing +30% 6,500
Jobs Per Building +10% 6,500
Science
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Advancements Costs -35% 6,000
Secret Compartments
Swarm only
Perk Max Coefficient
Gold Theft -100% 10,000
Food Theft -100% 8,000
Gem Theft -100% 12,000
Shield Plates
Swarm only
Perk Max Coefficient
Own Defensive Casualties -40% 6,000
Own Offensive Casualties -40% 6,000
Smashing
Troll only
Perk Max Coefficient
Offensive Power +50% 8,000
Sneaking
Troll only
Perk Max Coefficient
Spy Strength +90% 5,500
Spy Losses -90% 5,500
Spy Units Housing +90% 5,500
Stonecutting
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Ore Production +35% 5,000
Stonecutting
All except Afflicted, Aurei, Barbarian, Beastfolk, Glimjir, Growth, Halfling, Icekin, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Myconid, Qur, Simian, Sylvan, Swarm, Troll, Void, Wood Elf
Perk Max Coefficient
Ore Production +25% 4,000
Strength
Marshling only
Perk Max Coefficient
Defensive Power +50% 6,000
Own Casualties +20% 6,000
Striking
Swarm only
Perk Max Coefficient
Offensive Power +40% 8,000
Tissue
Growth only
Perk Max Coefficient
Population +120% 82,000
Food Production +120% 82,000
Torment
Afflicted only
Perk Max Coefficient
Miasma Extraction +50% 6,000
Training
Troll only
Perk Max Coefficient
Unit Gold Costs -50% 4,500
Unit Ore Costs -50% 4,500
Trampling
Troll only
Perk Max Coefficient
Land Discovered +70% 4,500
Tranquillity
Sylvan only
Perk Max Coefficient
Defensive Power +60% 8,000
Population Growth +60% 6,000
Tribalism
Barbarian only
Perk Max Coefficient
Population +300% 12,000
Tutoring
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
XP Generation +45% 8,500
XP Gained +45% 8,500
Underground Navigation
Swarm only
Perk Max Coefficient
Land Discovered +70% 7,000
Exploration Gold Costs -30% 6,000
Undulation
Swarm only
Perk Max Coefficient
Unit Gold Costs -35% 6,000
Uprooting
Troll only
Perk Max Coefficient
Lumber Production +50% 4,500
Venom
Swarm only
Perk Max Coefficient
Population Growth -40% 8,000
Enemy Casualties +60% 12,000
Vigilance
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Theft Protection (affects Buildings That Reduce Theft, Otherwise No Effect) +60% 7,000
Warfare
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Offensive Power +40% 10,000
Prestige Gains +50% 10,000
Waves
Void only
Perk Max Coefficient
Chance Of Units Returning Instantly From Invasion +50% 50,000
Unit Training Time -80% 25,000
Wizardry
Revenants, Undead only
Perk Max Coefficient
Wizard Strength +45% 5,000
Spell Damage -45% 5,000
Unit Limit Pairing +45% 5,000
Mana Production +45% 5,000
Wizard Units Housing +45% 5,000
Wizardry
Reptilians only
Perk Max Coefficient
Wizard Strength +45% 5,000
Spell Damage -45% 5,000
Unit Limit Pairing +45% 5,000
Mana Production +45% 5,000
Wizard Units Housing +45% 5,000
Wizardry
All except Barbarian, Beastfolk, Growth, Kerranad, Marshling, Monster, Nox, Qur, Reptilians, Revenants, Sylvan, Swarm, Troll, Undead, Void, Wood Elf
Perk Max Coefficient
Wizard Strength +45% 5,000
Spell Damage -45% 5,000
Mana Production +45% 5,000
Wizard Units Housing +45% 5,000
Wizardry
Qur only
Perk Max Coefficient
Wizard Strength +45% 5,000
Spell Damage -45% 5,000
Mana Production +45% 5,000
Wizard Units Housing +45% 5,000
Wizardry
Nox only
Perk Max Coefficient
Wizard Strength +45% 5,000
Spell Damage -45% 5,000
Unit Limit Pairing +45% 5,000
Mana Production +45% 5,000
Wizard Units Housing +45% 5,000
Wizardry
Wood Elf only
Perk Max Coefficient
Wizard Strength +90% 8,500
Spell Damage -90% 8,500
Mana Production +90% 8,500
Wizardry
Kerranad only
Perk Max Coefficient
Wizard Strength +60% 6,500
Spell Damage -60% 6,500
Mana Production +60% 6,500
Wizard Units Housing +60% 6,500